Root was clearly hoping that the lingering damp and overcast conditions would benefit Anderson and the 36-year-old took full advantage with some outstanding swing bowling.
It was the first time a whole day's Test play in England had been lost to bad weather since August 24, 2013 when the fourth day of the fifth Ashes clash at The Oval was abandoned without a ball bowled.
In the brief morning session, Anderson got England off to a fine start, clean bowling opener Murali Vijay before removing Lokesh Rahul, who was caught behind by keeper Jonny Bairstow.
India skipper Virat Kohli turns back on Cheteshwar Pujara.
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Just 75 seconds had passed when Alexis Sanchez's shot was blocked by Daniel Amartey's arm in the Leicester penalty area. As ESPN's Rob Dawson says: " Mourinho and Pogba's frosty relationship is a puzzle Manchester United must solve".
Only off-spinner Ravichandran Ashwin, batting at number eight, provided any real resistance, making 29 in a 49-minute knock before he was trapped lbw by Stuart Broad.
In the ninth over of the Indian innings, James Anderson bowled a back of a length delivery to Pujara who tapped and took off for a run.
It was then left to Anderson to have the final say as he capped a stunning day with the final wicket of Ishant Sharma to leave India in complete disarray.
On the Day 2, English bowlers used the conditions perfectly and restricted India for just 107 runs in the first innings.
Earlier, India made a decision to play with two spinners in Ravichandran Ashwin and Kuldeep Yadav, whereas Cheteshwar Pujara had a horrific return to Test cricket. He reached to the ball quickly which led to the mix-up between the two batsmen and ran Pujara out easily at the batsman's end.
England captain Joe Root confirmed on Wednesday that Ollie Pope, a 20-year-old Surrey batsman, would make his Test debut in place of the dropped Dawid Malan.