The Nobel Prize in chemistry also went to two other researchers, Frances Arnold, a chemical engineering professor at the California Institute of Technology and Gregory Winter, a biochemist at the M.R.C. Since then, phage display has produced antibodies that can neutralize toxins, counteract autoimmune diseases and treat metastatic cancer.
Called "monoclonal antibodies", they include the rheumatoid arthritis drug Humira, which had the biggest sale worldwide of any drug past year at £14billion.
Arnold was awarded the Nobel for her pioneering work with enzymes, the proteins that act as catalysts to speed up other biochemical reactions. Its content is created separately from USA TODAY. She would then see the effect each mutation had and choose the variants that could prove to be useful, such as one that could operate in a solvent, rather than a water-based environment.
A party-loving professor has told of his "shock" at hearing he had won a Nobel Prize.
After learning that he had won the Nobel Prize, Smith spoke to the Associated Press.
In the 1980s, Arnold tried to rebuild enzymes, but because they are very complex molecules built from different amino acids that can be infinitely combined, she found it hard to remodel the enzymes' genes in order to give them new properties.
Sir Gregory, who is Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, said at the time of the call he was sitting at his computer "looking balefully" at his work schedule for the day. Only 3 percent of science prizes have been awarded to women in science, Erin Ross reported for Axios a year ago.
Asked how he meant to spend his prize money, a quarter share of nine million Swedish krona (£770,000), Sir Gregory said: "I shall start this afternoon by paying for a party at my laboratory". They were the wish of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, who established the organization that provides money for the prizes.
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In a twist, Murkowski stated her opposition but voted "present" as a courtesy to Kavanaugh supporter Sen. In addition, Republican Senator Jeff Flake has also indicated he is a yes vote.
The other half will be jointly split between George Smith from the University of Missouri, US and Gregory Winter from the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in the United Kingdom who developed a technique called phage display.
The Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences said Arnold used the processes of natural selection to create enzymes.
Smith said he and his wife are discussing what to do with the cash prize, which they intend to donate.
U.S. biochemical engineer Frances Arnold, speaks after winning the Millennium Technology Prize 2016.
The $1 million prize will be shared by James Allison, Ph.D., chair of Immunology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Tasuku Honjo, M.D., Ph.D., a professor at Kyoto University.
The line went dead and Sir Greg said he thought it might be the bank "ringing up and telling me I had some dodgy transaction".
Arthur Ashkin, of the United States, was awarded half the nine million kronor (£770,000) prize, with the other half shared by Gerard Mourou of France and Canadian Donna Strickland.
The next Nobel, the Peace Prize, will be announced on Friday.
Meanwhile, the other two winners in chemistry - Greg Winter and George P Smith - who will share the other half of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, has been chosen due to their research on phage displays of peptides and antibodies.